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CIENCIAS

DE LA SALUD

medicina - fisioterapia - actividad física - psicología - etc.

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A comparison of the habitual landing strategies from differing drop heights of parkour practitioners (Traceurs) and recreationally trained individuals

Autor

Standing, R. J. & Maulder, P. S.

2015

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Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Kinetics; Parkour; dissipation; forefoot; kinematics.

Resumen

Parkour is an activity that encompasses methods of jumping, climbing and vaulting. With landing being a pertinent part of this practise, Parkour participants (traceurs) have devised their own habitual landing strategies, which are suggested to be a safer and more effective style of landing. The purpose of this study was to compare the habitual landing strategies of traceurs and recreationally trained individuals from differing drop heights. Comparisons between landing sound and mechanical parameters were also assessed to gauge the level of landing safety.

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A free-runninig case of study

Autor

Warren, J., Sinclair, J. & Bottoms, L.

2013

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Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

case study: Free-running: profiling: training

Resumen

Free-running has recently spread over the digital media and has since become an official sport. Despite this increase in popularity there is no peer-reviewed literature on the physiology and anthropometry of the athletes or the physical demands of the sport. This study aimed to define free-running and explore some of the physiological characteristics of the athletes and the sport, by undertaking the assessment of anthropometric data and vertical jump performance in 7 free-runners; in addition, GPS information was gathered from 3 training sessions for one free-runner. The free-runners in the present study displayed high power output as result of high vertical jump performance. They also displayed low levels of body fat and low body mass. The GPS data illustrated that free-running is an intermittent sport relying heavily on the phosphagenic energy system; therefore, free-runners should focus their training utilising this energy system. Another outcome from the research is the suggestion that future studies should trial different equipment to monitor the physiological demands and intensity of the sport due to particularly high-intensity short bursts of energy utilised. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

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Affordance boundaries are defined by dynamic capabilities of Parkour athletes in dropping from various heights

Autor

Croft, J. L. & Bertram, J. E. A.

2017

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Frontiers in Psychology

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

affordances, transitions, movement patterns, landing mechanics, momentum

Resumen

Available behaviors are determined by the fit between features of the individual and reciprocal features of the environment. Beyond some critical boundary certain behaviors become impossible causing sudden transitions from one movement pattern to another. Parkour athletes have developed multiple movement patterns to deal with their momentum during landing. We were interested in whether drop distance would cause a sudden transition between a two-footed (precision) landing and a load-distributing roll and whether the transition height could be predicted by dynamic and geometric characteristics of individual subjects. Kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured as Parkour athletes stepped off a box from heights that were incrementally increased or decreased from 0.6 to 2.3 m. Individuals were more likely to roll from higher drops; those with greater body mass and less explosive leg power, were more likely to transition to a roll landing at a lower height. At some height a two-footed landing is no longer feasible but for some athletes this height was well within the maximum drop height used in this study. During low drops the primary task constraint of managing momentum could be achieved with either a precision landing or a roll. This meant that participants were free to select their preferred landing strategy, which was only partially influenced by the physical demands of the task. However, athletes with greater leg power appeared capable of managing impulse absorption through a leg mediated strategy up to a greater drop height.

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Are Children Attracted to Play Elements with an Open Function?

Autor

Lynn van der Schaaf, A., Caljouw, S.R. & Withagen, R.

2020

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Ecological Psychology

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

The present study aimed to determine the degree to which play elements have an “open function”, and whether children are attracted to them. The architect van Eyck hypothesized that play elements with an open function attract playing children because such elements do not suggest a certain type of behavior and are, thus, likely to stimulate the children’s creativity. Children of three different age groups (5-6, 7-8, and 11-12years of age) played freely in a Parkour

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Augmented reality-based rehabilitation of gait impairments: Case report

Autor

Held, J.P.O. et al.

2020

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JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

HoloLens 2, gait, rehabilitation, stroke, augmented reality, sensors

Resumen

Background: Gait and balance impairments are common in neurological diseases, including stroke, and negatively affect patients' quality of life. Improving balance and gait are among the main goals of rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is mainly performed in clinics, which lack context specificity; therefore, training in the patient's home environment is preferable. In the last decade, developed rehabilitation technologies such as virtual reality and augmented reality (AR) have enabled gait and balance training outside clinics. Here, we propose a new method for gait rehabilitation in persons who have had a stroke in which mobile AR technology and a sensor-based motion capture system are combined to provide fine-grained feedback on gait performance in real time. Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate manipulation of the gait pattern of persons who have had a stroke based on virtual augmentation during overground walking compared to walking without AR performance feedback and (2) to investigate the usability of the AR system. Methods: We developed the ARISE (Augmented Reality for gait Impairments after StrokE) system, in which we combined a development version of HoloLens 2 smart glasses (Microsoft Corporation) with a sensor-based motion capture system. One patient with chronic minor gait impairment poststroke completed clinical gait assessments and an AR parkour course with patient-centered performance gait feedback. The movement kinematics during gait as well as the usability and safety of the system were evaluated. Results: The patient changed his gait pattern during AR parkour compared to the pattern observed during the clinical gait assessments. He recognized the virtual objects and ranked the usability of the ARISE system as excellent. In addition, the patient stated that the system would complement his standard gait therapy. Except for the symptom of exhilaration, no adverse events occurred. Conclusions: This project provided the first evidence of gait adaptation during overground walking based on real-time feedback through visual and auditory augmentation. The system has potential to provide gait and balance rehabilitation outside the clinic. This initial investigation of AR rehabilitation may aid the development and investigation of new gait and balance therapies. 

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Centro deportivo del campus universitario

Autor

Urrestra, D.F. y Garrido, E.P.

2017

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Universidad Central del Ecuador

Tipo de publicación

Trabajo Fin de Grado/Máster o similar

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Pinchita-Quito, Polideportivo, Alto rendimiento, Arquitectura sustentable, Piscina olímpica, Paredes escalables, Parkour, Traceur, Crossfit, Universidad.

Resumen

El presente proyecto se encuentra ubicado en la ciudad de Quito, provincia de Pichincha, en el campus de la Universidad Central del Ecuador. El proyecto busca mejorar el nivel deportivo universitario en un lugar donde se realizan varios deportes entre ellos principalmente la natación, tomando en cuenta un importante antecedente. En la ciudad de Quito como capital del Ecuador, no existe una piscina olímpica reglamentaria para el uso recreativo y de alto rendimiento. Existen varios proyectos que fueron planificados, otros iniciaron una construcción que nunca se terminó. Otros ejemplos son ele uso restringido, o no tienen las medidas reglamentarias. El centro acuático es el punto de inicio del proyecto que parte ele esta realidad ele la ciudad. Un polideportivo que alberga también a varios deportes que se practican en el país y resto del mundo. Se desarrolla en altura en un terreno vacío que pertenece a la Universidad Central que busca vincularse con el equipamiento existente que hay en el campus, creando un lugar dedicado el deporte recreativo y el alto rendimiento.

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Chronic effect of strength training on vertical jump performance in parkour practitioners

Autor

Da Rocha, J.A.

2017

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Archives of Budo Science of Martial Arts and Extreme Sports

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

 strength training, vertical jump, Parkour, Extreme Sports

Resumen

Background & Study Aim: Parkour is a typical extreme form of physical activity (EFPA), commonly extreme sport. Parkour can be characterised as a high-intensity sport that demands motor actions like different jump techniques (vertical, horizontal, plyometric, long jumps), running, climbing, crawling and balancing. The aim of the present study was the effects of eight weeks of strength training on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in parkour practitioners. Material & Methods: Twenty parkour practitioners without any systematic strength training program experience were distributed into 2 groups. The strength training group (SG) performed strength, and conventional parkour training and the control group (CG) only performed the conventional parkour training. Both types of training were performed 2 times per week. Results: The SG practitioners presented a significant increase in CMJ height (p = 0.000194), while the CG did not present a significant increase (p = 0.138). All SG practitioners showed a percentage increase in CMJ height, with a mean variation of 9.9 +/- 0.9%. Conclusions: Strength training increases the vertical jump height of parkour practitioners, which can positively influence performance in this modality. Therefore, the association of strength training with load protocol for muscular hypertrophy can increase the performance in parkour and should, therefore, be encouraged to the practitioners of this modality.

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Comparación de los componentes de la aptitud física que caracterizan al parkour en un grupo de practicantes costarricenses según los años de entrenamiento

Autor

Solano, M.

2016

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Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica

Tipo de publicación

Trabajo Fin de Grado/Máster o similar

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Resumen

Compara los componentes de la aptitud física y la influencia de los años de entrenamiento, en un grupo de practicantes de parkour. La muestra fue de 18 sujetos de género masculino. Se midieron las siguientes variables antropométricas: talla, peso, masa músculo esquelética, masa grasa, índice de masa corporal; y para evaluar la aptitud física, las pruebas que se aplicaron fueron: sit and reach modificada, salto horizontal a pies juntos, salto de contra movimiento adaptado a miembros superiores, salto partiendo de media sentadilla, salto de contra movimiento, salto vertical desde una caída de altura, salto vertical con gesto técnico de parkour y saltos continuos con una duración 15 seg. No se encontró diferencia significativa entre los grupos en ninguna de las variables relacionas a la composición corporal. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en las pruebas de salto horizontal de pies juntos y en la prueba salto de contra movimiento adaptado a miembros superiores. Los resultados encontrados sugieren, que la composición corporal manifestada en los atletas de parkour no se ve influenciada por años de práctica, sino, por las demandas físicas que exige esta actividad; en caso contrario, el rendimiento en la pruebas de aptitud física aplicadas en este estudio, se encontró, que los años de práctica y la experiencia acumulada por el entrenamiento, van a influir en el rendimiento de los atletas analizados.

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Comparison of Physical and Physiological Performance Features of Parkour and Gymnastics Athletes

Autor

Seyhan, S.

2019

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Journal of Education and Learning

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Athletics: Athletes: Exercise Physiology: Performance: Body Composition: Human Body: Muscular Strength

Resumen

The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and physiological features of the traceurs with the gymnastics athletes. The study was carried out with twelve volunteer participants (traceurs=6, gymnastics athletes=6). The mean age of the traceurs was 18.67[plus or minus]1.03 years, 172.67[plus or minus]3.78 cm, body mass 62.5[plus or minus]8.94 kg and BMI was 20.98[plus or minus]2.97; gymnastics athletes was 19.33[plus or minus]1.21 years, 175.83[plus or minus]6.18 cm, body mass 65.17[plus or minus]8.06 kg and BMI was 21.11[plus or minus]2.67. Maximal oxygen utilization levels of traceurs and rhythmic gymnastics athletes were 56.13[plus or minus]3.95 ml/kg/min and 57.18[plus or minus]5.33 ml/kg/min respectively, their Illinois test times were 15.22[plus or minus]0.42 sec and 15.33[plus or minus]0.22 sec respectively, their vertical jump distances were 47.41[plus or minus]6.05 cm and 46.48[plus or minus]3.37 cm respectively, their vertical jump power values were 7252.7[plus or minus]1142.73 W and 7026.55[plus or minus]427.62 W respectively, their horizontal jump distances were 2.53[plus or minus]0.61 m and 2.48[plus or minus]0.12 m respectively, and finally, their hamstring flexion angles were determined by using goniometer as the measurement of hamstring flexibility (traceurs = 106.67[plus or minus]4.27[degree]; gymnastics athletes = 121.33[plus or minus]5.36[degree]*), and there was a significant difference between the angles hamstring flexibility of the two groups (*p<0.05). According to the results obtained from the study, it was seen that physical and physiological values obtained from two groups of athletes were very close to each other and no significant difference was observed between these two groups. This similarity can be explained by the fact that the training of these two branches does not differ as structural features. In conclusion, the learning of important performance determinants in athletes, such as aerobic power, flexibility, agility and explosive power, by the coaches and their education in this subject may enable the preparation of a better training program.

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DUNT. "Deportes urbanos y nuevas tendencias"

Autor

Vargas, D.Y., Acuña, L.M. & Acosta, J.F.

2015

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Secretaría de Cultura, Recreación y Deporte de Colombia

Tipo de publicación

Libro

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Resumen

Las ciudades que han invertido en el modelo de ciudad donde el centro de desarrollo es el ser humano, han sido ciudades progresistas que han avanzado en la inclusión, la no segregación y la defensa de las libertades. El espacio público revitalizado y democratizado implica prácticas deportivas y culturales donde se abre espacio a diferentes expresiones y representaciones urbanas que como las nuevas tendencias del deporte, se viven de manera creciente configurándose en expresiones ciudadanas que se han denominado “nuevas ciudadanías”.

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A displaced paediatric metaphyseal fracture of a distal tibia and fibula sustained during Parkour - A potentially dangerous recreation from France

Autor

McLean, C. et al.

2005

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Journal of Orthopaedics

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Athletic Injuries, Fibula Fractures, Adolescence, Radiography

Resumen

Fractures of the metaphyseal distal tibia and fibula are not common fractures in children being only the third most common long bone to fracture. According to Rockwood ankle fractures, including the metaphyseal distal tibia, account for 4.4% of all paediatric fractures

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A post-COVID-19 lifestyle sport research agenda: Communication, risk, and organizational challenges

Autor

Smith, W.R.

2020

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International Journal of Sport Communication

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

community; social media; stakeholders

Resumen

The cancellations and postponements of large-scale organized sport competitions provided the first indicators of the impact that COVID-19 would have on society. During the pandemic, sport media reporting has focused on cancellations. Although not receiving as much media attention, "lifestyle sports,"such as rock climbing, parkour, BMX, kayaking, or skateboarding, were also impacted by COVID-19 in ways that differ from organized team sports. In this commentary, the author draws upon select media reports and subcultural social media posts to highlight two primary impacts of COVID-19: (a) the civic organizational challenges of limiting lifestyle sport participation and (b) the influence on the social and risk-laden experience of these sports. The article concludes by detailing lifestyle sport stakeholder communication, digital sporting communities, the use of social media for organizing lifestyle sport communities, and sport risk communication as fruitful avenues for future research in a postpandemic lifestyle sports. 

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Angular momentum regulation strategies for highly dynamic landing in Parkour

Autor

Maldonado, G. et al.

2017

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Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

 Postural control; center of mass; centroidal momentum; stability; whole-body motion

Resumen

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Art du Deplacement (ADD)/Parkour therapy for people with Parkinson's disease (PDP)

Autor

Schwed, M., Getrost, T., Torchia, K. & Yao, G.

2019

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Movement Disorders

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Interventions, Parkinsonism, Rehabilitation

Resumen

The purpose of this study was to transfer ADD training methods into safe training paradigms for PDP, and psychologically framed coping strategies for mood management through integrating the ADD therapy via the Esprit Concrete Method and the Neuroprotective Exercise Protocol (NEP) through the Neurowerkstatt Method

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Bridging the gap: parkour athletes provide new insights into locomotion energetics of arboreal apes

Autor

Halsey, L. G., Coward, S. R., & Thorpe, S. K.

2016

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Biology letters

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

climb; jump; locomotion; metabolic rate; primate; tree-sway.

Resumen

The tree canopy is an energetically challenging environment to traverse. Along with compliant vegetation, gaps in the canopy can prove energetically costly if they force a route-extending detour. Arboreal apes exhibit diverse locomotion strategies, including for gap crossing. Which one they employ in any given scenario may be influenced by the energy costs to do so, which are affected by the details of the immediate environment in combination with their body size. Measuring energetics of arboreal apes is not tractable; thus our knowledge in this area is limited. We devised a novel, custom-made experimental set-up to record the energy expenditure of parkour athletes tree-swaying, jumping and vertical climbing. The latter strategy was vastly more expensive, indicating that when energy economy is the focus arboreal apes will prioritize routes that limit height changes. Whether tree-swaying or jumping was most economical for the athletes depended upon interactions between tree stiffness, the distance to cross, number of tree-sways required and their own mass. Updated analysis of previous interspecific correlations suggests that whether the relative costs to vertical climb are size-invariant across primate species is complicated by details of the climbing context.

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Choreographic techniques for human bodies in weightlessness

Autor

Dipert, R.A.

2021

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Acta Astronautica

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Moment of inertia, Rotation, Human body, Dance, Movement control, Weightlessness

Resumen

Microgravity environments present unique movement and perceptual challenges which are most appropriately explored by movement professional. The high cost of microgravity and space endeavors place utilization of the time in those environments at a premium. We have identified techniques which can be practiced on Earth to increase competence of motion and develop a deeper understanding of reorientation of the human body in microgravity. This research has focused on understanding strategies for planning and executing specific movements, which can be explored in precise and low cost ways. A simulator was coded to explore the dynamics of the human body, which allows for visual and numeric calculations of the body’s moment of inertia eigenvectors and center of mass in a variety of positions. The maneuvers were explored with dance, circus, and parkour artists through the use of parabolic flights, pools, and aerial harnesses.

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Clasificación de las praxis motrices de turismo activo en entornos naturales

Autor

Del Toro, G. & González, F.

2011

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Acción motriz

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Turismo activo, Entorno natural, Praxis motriz, Clasificación.

Resumen

El turismo activo en entornos naturales se caracteriza porque la principal motivación del viajero es la posibilidad de practicar algún tipo de actividad física en entornos portadores de incertidumbre requiriendo al participante o participantes una continua adaptación ambiental para disfrutar al margen de una competición oficial o reglada. El objetivo de este artículo es el de ofrecer una herramienta que permita agrupar el conjunto de praxis vinculadas al turismo activo en entornos naturales de forma homogénea de acuerdo a su estructura interna, para facilitar así su estudio y comprensión. Para ello nos hemos propuesto diseñar una clasificación que se ajuste a la realidad de estas praxis de turismo activo en entornos naturales.

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Comparación de los componentes de la aptitud física y composición corporal en practicantes de parkour según los años de entrenamiento

Autor

Solano, M. et al.

2017

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Revistas de ciencias del movimiento humano y salud

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Resumen

The purpose of the study was to compare physical fitness and anthropometric components in parkour practitioners and find out how years of training influence these variables. Methodology: A total of 18 males participated in the study, who were divided in 3 groups based on years of training. Measurements were taken of anthropometric variables: height, weight, skeletal muscle mass, fat mass, body mass index, as well as physical fitness variables: flexibility (hamstring extensibility), power in upper and lower limbs and resistance to explosive force. One-way ANOVA was used for the independent groups and the Tukey’s post hoc normality test was used to determine significant differences, at an alpha level of p <.05. Results: no significant differences were found between the groups in any of the anthropometric variables.  However, significant differences were found in the component physical fitness, bipodal horizontal jump (P = .02), CMJUL (Countermovement Jump applied to upper limbs) (p = .01) and CMJ (Countermovement Jump) (p = .00), being the group with more years of training the highest of the three. Conclusions: results showed that body composition in parkour athletes was not influenced by years of practice. However, differences found in physical fitness variables, years of training seem to have effects on performance, especially in the physical power of the lower and upper train.

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Cortical and spinal excitabilities are differently balanced in power athletes(

Autor

Grosprêtre, S., Bouguetoch, A. & Martin, A.

2020

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European Journal of Sport Science

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

H-reflex; PARKOUR; freerunning; motor evoked potential; transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Resumen

It is recognised that power-sport practices have a particular effect on lower-limb neuromuscular parameters. Less is known about corticospinal network adaptation, however, or whether these adaptations are specific to the lower limb. In the present study, the corticospinal and spinal excitabilities of upper and lower limbs have been examined in a group of untrained participants (UT, n = 10) and compared to those of a group of well-trained athletes practicing parkour (PK, n = 10). This activity, consisting of overcoming obstacles offered by the urban environment, was chosen as a model of power activity. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulations and H-reflexes and maximal M-waves evoked by peripheral nerve stimulations were elicited in both upper- (flexor carpi radialis [FCR]) and lower-limb muscles (soleus [SOL] and gastrocnemius medialis [GM]). The results tended toward an overall greater corticospinal excitability in PK than in UT (as evidenced by greater MEP/Mmax ratio) and lower spinal excitability (lower Hmax/Mmax). H/MMAX ratio was lower for PK (0.32) than for UT (0.41) in SOL (p = 0.02), while MEP/MMAX was greater for PK than for UT in FCR (PK: 0.12; UT: 0.06; P = 0.04) and in GM (PK: 0.05, UT: 0.03, P = 0.02). In both limbs, the decrease of spinal excitability induced by parkour practice was counterbalanced by an increase in cortical excitability. Finally, the present study indicates that such long-term power practice leads to similar corticospinal plasticity in upper and lower limbs, explained by the similar solicitation of those muscles. 

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Designing Parkour-style training environments for athlete development: insights from experienced Parkour Traceurs

Autor

Strafford, B.W. et al.

2020

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Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

afordances, athletic development, Athletic Skills Model, donor sport, free running

Resumen

Contemporary models of motor learning implicate the value of Parkour-style training as an activity to enrich athletic performance in different sports. We explored Parkour Traceurs’ experiential knowledge on the range of physical, perceptual, psychological and social skills that they perceive to be developed during Parkour practice and performance. We also investigated their recommendations on how to design Parkour practice to facilitate the development of foundational performance behaviours. Experienced male Parkour Traceurs (n = 14) were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured approach, with a two-stage thematic analysis being conducted to identify themes. The analysis identified two dimensions: Skills Developed Through Parkour and Recommendations for Designing Parkour Training Environments. Parkour Traceurs outlined numerous physical (locomotor skills; endurance; strength; agility; balance), perceptual (multi-limb coordination; control precision; rate control; response orientation), psychological (problem-solving; stress relief; self-efficacy; risk management) and social (networking; initiative; social perceptiveness; receptiveness to feedback) capacities and skills that could be augmented through Parkour training. Parkour Traceurs explained how indoor Parkour environments should promote creative and exploratory movement behaviours that enable physical conditioning, whilst enhancing decision-making and action functionality. Responses suggest that these aims are often achieved by designing a modular practice landscape where Parkour Traceurs manipulate the spacing, orientation and angles of bars and wall set-ups to facilitate the development of different perceptual, cognitive and physical skills. In conclusion, this study provides insights on how affordances offered by a Parkour environment could be integrated into practice to enhance athlete self-regulation and transfer of functional behaviours to team sport performance.

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