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CIENCIAS

DE LA SALUD

medicina - fisioterapia - actividad física - psicología - etc.

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Parkour – a bridge between motor activities and live-ability practices in the urban jungle

Autor

Mango, P., Castaldo, F.B. & Calefato, A.

2021

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Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Parkour, urban jungle, movement, environment, Edgework, calculated risk

Resumen

The origin of parkour can be dated back to George Hébert’s studies. It was created in France and quickly spread around the world. This motor discipline is commonly defined as “art du déplacement”, and its aim is to adapt one’s movements to the surrounding environment, both natural and urban. Parkour transforms towns from still and impersonal spaces into places for creativity, learning, and self-knowledge. In fact, a practitioner (before beginning to move) will continuously wonder about his motivations and his physical perceptions, converse with his fears, and look for his psychophysical balance. In 2019, the Italian Ministry of Health invited to consider unstructured activities to promote active life and make individual and collective gratification elements available. With this aim, parkour (as a mainly sensory–motor discipline) is very useful owing to its educational purposes, in particular when children are involved, because their approach to senses is still free from social and family conditioning. Parkour is a movement practice, which requires considerable physical, mental, and emotional training. We discuss the relationship between parkour and edgework (a socio-psychological concept about voluntary risk-taking; Lyng S., 1990) because parkour practitioners are exposed to risks that seem greater than what is socially acceptable. This study analyzes parkour as an outdoor activity, as an expression of flourishing (Nussbaum M, 2007) from the point of view of the urban jungle and as a denunciation of unsuitability of urbanization for the natural needs of the human being. We confirmed that the edgework approach was a very effective tool for practitioners to improve their specific skills and their personal lives. Parkour poses the questions; the practitioner’s aim is to find the answers.

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Understanding children’s preference for park features that encourage physical activity: an adaptive choice based conjoint analysis

Autor

Veitch, J. et al.

2021

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International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

Parks are a key setting for physical activity for children. However, little is known about which park features children prefer and which features are most likely to encourage them to be active in parks. This study examined the relative importance of park features among children for influencing their choice of park for engaging in park-based physical activity.

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Choreographic techniques for human bodies in weightlessness

Autor

Dipert, R.A.

2021

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Acta Astronautica

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Moment of inertia, Rotation, Human body, Dance, Movement control, Weightlessness

Resumen

Microgravity environments present unique movement and perceptual challenges which are most appropriately explored by movement professional. The high cost of microgravity and space endeavors place utilization of the time in those environments at a premium. We have identified techniques which can be practiced on Earth to increase competence of motion and develop a deeper understanding of reorientation of the human body in microgravity. This research has focused on understanding strategies for planning and executing specific movements, which can be explored in precise and low cost ways. A simulator was coded to explore the dynamics of the human body, which allows for visual and numeric calculations of the body’s moment of inertia eigenvectors and center of mass in a variety of positions. The maneuvers were explored with dance, circus, and parkour artists through the use of parabolic flights, pools, and aerial harnesses.

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Effects of Functional Movement Skills on Parkour Speed-Run Performance

Autor

Strafford, B.W. et al.

2021

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Eur J Sport Sci

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

Parkour speed-runs require performers (known as Traceurs) to negotiate obstacles with divergent properties such as angles, inclinations, sizes, surfaces, and textures in the quickest way possible. The quicker the run, the higher the performer is ranked. Performance in Parkour speed-runs may be regulated through Parkour Traceurs' basic movement skill capacities given the physical requirements of the event. This study examined what functional movement skills correlate with Parkour speed-run performance. Nineteen male Parkour Traceurs undertook a physical testing battery inclusive of: agility T-test, maximal grip strength test, and maximal vertical and horizontal jumps across several jump modalities. For the speed-run, Parkour Traceurs navigated an indoor Parkour installation. Pearson's correlation analyses (r) revealed that agility T-test performance showed a significant negative correlation with Parkour speed-run performance, whereas standing long jump and counter movement jump (with and without arm swing) were significantly positively correlated with Parkour speed-run performance. Concurrent with the intrinsically-linked building blocks in the Athletic Skills Model, the data from the present study suggest that performance in Parkour-speed-runs are underpinned by functional movement skills (jumping, running; arm swinging) and conditions of movement (agility), all of which encapsulate elements of basic motor properties (speed; strength). From a practical perspective, the agility T-test, standing long jump, and counter movement jump without and without arm swing can form a basic battery to evaluate the physical effects of Parkour speed-run interventions on functional movement skills.

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Parkour and Intrinsic Motivation: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Self-Determination Theory in an Emerging Youth Sport

Autor

Carson, J. & Larsen, B.

2020

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Annals of Behavioral Medicine

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

Physical activity is important for improving lifelong health and wellness, yet only a quarter of US children meet physical activity guidelines. Highly competitive youth sports may impact youth dropout and providing alternative options to be active may be a solution. Self-Determination Theory, a psychological theory around the idea of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation, is an underutilized framework that may be helpful in addressing this issue. We employed a mixed method design to understand how Parkour, an emerging youth sport, may better address psychological needs as defined by Self-Determination Theory. Cross-sectional survey data from 38 children/adolescents (ages 7-17) enrolled in Parkour versus other sports were compared, and 15 of the Parkour participants were individually interviewed to gain a deeper understanding. There were significant differences between the two groups for their motivations and physical activity habits, and the addition of the qualitative data illustrates the potential advantages of Parkour to reach children who may be otherwise uninterested. This study provides an important background for future research into Parkour that has thus far been limited.

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A post-COVID-19 lifestyle sport research agenda: Communication, risk, and organizational challenges

Autor

Smith, W.R.

2020

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International Journal of Sport Communication

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

community; social media; stakeholders

Resumen

The cancellations and postponements of large-scale organized sport competitions provided the first indicators of the impact that COVID-19 would have on society. During the pandemic, sport media reporting has focused on cancellations. Although not receiving as much media attention, "lifestyle sports,"such as rock climbing, parkour, BMX, kayaking, or skateboarding, were also impacted by COVID-19 in ways that differ from organized team sports. In this commentary, the author draws upon select media reports and subcultural social media posts to highlight two primary impacts of COVID-19: (a) the civic organizational challenges of limiting lifestyle sport participation and (b) the influence on the social and risk-laden experience of these sports. The article concludes by detailing lifestyle sport stakeholder communication, digital sporting communities, the use of social media for organizing lifestyle sport communities, and sport risk communication as fruitful avenues for future research in a postpandemic lifestyle sports. 

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Kinematic Analyses of Parkour Landings from as High as 2.7 Meters

Autor

Dai, B. et al.

2020

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Journal of Human Kinetics

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

jump-landing, impact, injury, performance, lower extremities

Resumen

Developing effective landing strategies has implications for both injury prevention and performance training. The purpose was to quantify the kinematics of Parkour practitioners' landings from three heights utilizing four techniques. Seventeen male and three female Parkour practitioners landed from 0.9, 1.8, and 2.7 m utilizing the squat, forward, roll, and stiff landing techniques when three-dimensional kinematics were collected. The stiff landing demonstrated the shortest landing time, and the roll landing showed the longest landing time for 1.8 and 2.7 m. Roll landings demonstrated the greatest forward velocities at initial contact and at the end of the landing. Stiff landings showed the greatest changes in vertical velocity during the early landing, while roll landings showed the least changes for 0.9 and 1.8 m. Both roll and stiff landings generally resulted in decreased changes in horizontal velocity during the early landing compared to squat and forward landings. The four landing techniques also demonstrated different lower extremity joint angles. Stiff landings may increase injury risk because of the quick decrease of vertical velocities. Roll landings allow individuals to decrease vertical and horizontal velocities over a longer time, which is likely to decrease the peak loading imposed on the lower extremities.

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Luxation sous talienne interne pure ouverte: à propos d´un cas

Autor

Mmai, O.

2020

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PAMJ Clinical Medicine

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Francés

Palabras clave

Luxation, sous talienne interne, accident de sport

Resumen

La luxation sous talienne est une lésion traumatique rare du pied dans laquelle le calcanéum et l'os naviculaire sont déplacés par rapport au talus qui conserve sa position normale au sein de la mortaise de la cheville. Elle doit être considérer comme une urgence thérapeutique, et aucun traitement n´est spécifique à cette lésion Les auteurs rapportent un cas de luxation sous talienne interne pure ouverte stade 2 de Gustillo et Anderson suite à un accident de sport: Parkour. Le patient a bénéficié d´une réduction urgente suivie d´une stabilisation avec arthroryse par deux broches calcanéo-astragaliennes et deux broches talo-naviculaires, et d´une immobilisation pendant six semaines. Après un recul de 12 mois, les résultats fonctionnels étaient satisfaisants.

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Augmented reality-based rehabilitation of gait impairments: Case report

Autor

Held, J.P.O. et al.

2020

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JMIR mHealth and uHealth

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

HoloLens 2, gait, rehabilitation, stroke, augmented reality, sensors

Resumen

Background: Gait and balance impairments are common in neurological diseases, including stroke, and negatively affect patients' quality of life. Improving balance and gait are among the main goals of rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is mainly performed in clinics, which lack context specificity; therefore, training in the patient's home environment is preferable. In the last decade, developed rehabilitation technologies such as virtual reality and augmented reality (AR) have enabled gait and balance training outside clinics. Here, we propose a new method for gait rehabilitation in persons who have had a stroke in which mobile AR technology and a sensor-based motion capture system are combined to provide fine-grained feedback on gait performance in real time. Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate manipulation of the gait pattern of persons who have had a stroke based on virtual augmentation during overground walking compared to walking without AR performance feedback and (2) to investigate the usability of the AR system. Methods: We developed the ARISE (Augmented Reality for gait Impairments after StrokE) system, in which we combined a development version of HoloLens 2 smart glasses (Microsoft Corporation) with a sensor-based motion capture system. One patient with chronic minor gait impairment poststroke completed clinical gait assessments and an AR parkour course with patient-centered performance gait feedback. The movement kinematics during gait as well as the usability and safety of the system were evaluated. Results: The patient changed his gait pattern during AR parkour compared to the pattern observed during the clinical gait assessments. He recognized the virtual objects and ranked the usability of the ARISE system as excellent. In addition, the patient stated that the system would complement his standard gait therapy. Except for the symptom of exhilaration, no adverse events occurred. Conclusions: This project provided the first evidence of gait adaptation during overground walking based on real-time feedback through visual and auditory augmentation. The system has potential to provide gait and balance rehabilitation outside the clinic. This initial investigation of AR rehabilitation may aid the development and investigation of new gait and balance therapies. 

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Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on sports performance for two profiles of athletes (power and endurance) (COMPETE): A protocol for a randomised, crossover, double blind, controlled exploratory trial

Autor

Grandperrin, Y. et al.

2020

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Trials

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Transcranial direct current stimulation, endurance performance, explosive performance, explosive perfomance, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parkour, cycling

Resumen

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is promising for improving motor and cognitive performance. Nevertheless, its mechanisms of action are unclear and need to be better characterised according to the stimulated brain area and the type of exercise performed. Methods/design: This is a double-blind crossover study, organised into two parts: the first is to assess the effects of tDCS on explosive performance (jump task) and the second is to assess the effects on endurance performance (cycling time trial task). Participants, who are recreationally active or athletes (parkour practitioners, cyclists), will receive two active tDCS sessions (over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right motor cortex) and one sham tDCS session (part A), or two sequences (one active and one sham) of two daily tDCS sessions over 5 days (part B). Motor and cognitive performance will be compared before and after tDCS sessions (part A), and before and after the first session, after the last session and at day 12 and day 30 of each tDCS sequence (part B). Discussion: This study investigates the acute and repeated effects of tDCS on the motor and cognitive performance of healthy subjects. It will try to evaluate if tDCS could be considered as a neuroenhancement technology according to the physical task investigated (endurance versus explosive).

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The degree to which traditional play equipment, Parkour play elements, and Aldo van Eyck’s play sculptures have an open function

Autor

Van Der Schaaf, A.L. et al

2021

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European Early Childhood Education Research Journal

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Affordances, open functions, Parkour play elements, traditional play equipment, van Eyck’s play sculptures

Resumen

The concept of open functions was introduced to capture an intended feature of van Eyck’s seminal play sculptures – they do not suggest a specific action. In a recent study, Van der Schaaf, A. L., S. R. Caljouw, and R. Withagen. (2020. “Are Children Attracted to Play Elements with an Open Function?” Ecological Psychology 32: 79–94) aimed to determine the degree of openness of Parkour play elements by asking participants what behavior children will mainly perform on them. In the present study, we used this method to determine the degree of openness of traditional play elements (e.g. a slide), van Eyck’s play sculptures, and Parkour play elements. In addition, we measured the time participants needed to answer the question of what action children will mainly perform on the different elements. We found that generally the Parkour elements have the highest degree of openness. Interestingly, van Eyck’s play elements appeared not to be that open. Moreover, the reaction time proved to be an alternative measure for the degree of openness.

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Parkour-Based Activities in the Athletic Development of Youth Basketball Players

Autor

Williams, M.D. et al.

2021

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Front Physiol

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

affordance landscape; fundamental movement skills; non-linear pedagogy; strength training; youth athletes.

Resumen

While ideas from long-term athlete development (LTAD) models have been adopted and integrated across different sports, issues related to early specialization, such as increased risk of injury and burnout, are still common. Although some benefits may be associated with early sport specialization, sports sampling is purported to be a more effective approach to the long-term health and wellbeing of children. Furthermore, the concept of developing what are commonly referred to as "fundamental movement skills" (FMS) is central to the rationale for delaying single sports specialization. However, in place of sports sampling, it appears that the practice of strength and conditioning (S&C) has become a driving force behind developmental models for youth athletes, highlighted by the growing body of literature regarding youth athletic development training. In this perspective piece, we explore how conventional S&C practice may insufficiently develop FMS because typically, it only emphasizes a narrow range of foundational exercises that serve a limited role toward the development of action capabilities in youth athletic populations. We further discuss how this approach may limit the transferability of physical qualities, such as muscular strength, to sports-specific tasks. Through an ecological dynamics lens, and using basketball as an example, we explore the potential for parkour-based activity within the LTAD of youth basketball players. We propose parkour as a training modality to not only encourage movement diversity and adaptability, but also as part of an advanced strength training strategy for the transfer of conventional S&C training.

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“I am going out!” – lifestyle sports and physical activity in adolescents

Autor

Janeckova, K. et al.

2021

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BMC Public Health

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Self-organized activities, Unstructured leisure, Sedentary behaviour, Youth, Inactivity, Lifestyle

Resumen

Lifestyle sport activities (e.g. parkour or skateboarding) are considered attractive and beneficial for a long-term commitment to physical activity (PA) and might be a great opportunity for adolescents who do not feel comfortable in an organized or competitive atmosphere. The purpose of the study was to assess whether participation in lifestyle activities is associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), out-of-school vigorous physical activity (VPA), and sedentary behaviour in adolescents aged 10–15 years, with major demographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) being taken into account.

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Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the psychomotor, cognitive, and motor performances of power athletes

Autor

Grosprêtre, S. et al.

2021

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Sci Rep

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

In sports science, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has many unknown effects on neuromuscular, psychomotor and cognitive aspects. Particularly, its impact on power performances remains poorly investigated. Eighteen healthy young males, all trained in a jumping sport (parkour) performed three experimental sessions: anodal tDCS applied either on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, cathode in supraorbital area) or on the primary motor cortex (M1, cathode on contralateral shoulder), and a placebo condition (SHAM), each applied for 20 min at 2 mA. Pre and post, maximal vertical and horizontal jumps were performed, associated to leg neuromuscular assessment through electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulations. Actual and imagined pointing tasks were also performed to evaluate fine motor skills, and a full battery of cognitive and psychomotor tests was administered. M1 tDCS improved jump performance accompanied by an increase in supraspinal and spinal excitabilities. dlPFC stimulation only impacted the pointing tasks. No effect on cognitive tests was found for any of the tDCS conditions. To conclude, the type of performance (maximal versus accurate) affected depended upon the tDCS montage. Finally, athletes responded well to tDCS for motor performance while results to cognitive tests seemed unaffected, at least when implemented with the present rationale.

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Parkour jako nový gymnastický sport

Autor

Vašurová, B.

2020

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Charles University

Tipo de publicación

Trabajo Fin de Grado/Máster o similar

Idioma

Checo

Palabras clave

Parkour, somatotype, sport, discipline, abilities, competition

Resumen

The aim of this work is to introduce parkour as a new gymnastic sport and, based on the somatotypes measurements, define optimal profile of an athlet for this kind of sport with expressing differences in somatotypes with respect to individual parkour disciplines.

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Epidemiología de las lesiones en el parkour y revisión de la literatura

Autor

Giner, M.A.

2020

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Sport Tk-Revista Euroamericana De Ciencias Del Deporte

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

prevalence; epidemiology; injury; musculoskeletal system; parkour; traceur; prevalencia; epidemiología; lesión; sistema músculo-esquelético; parkour; traceur

Resumen

El parkour es una actividad física cada vez más popular que continúa atrayendo practicantes. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la prevalencia de lesiones en el parkour así como la naturaleza, zona anatómica, procedimiento requerido, lugar dónde sucedió y movimiento de parkour. Se analizó a los practicantes de la Comunidad de Madrid, un total de 161 sujetos con una experiencia mínima de 12 meses y una práctica regular de al menos 1 vez por semana, empleando un cuestionario ad hoc. Los resultados muestran una prevalencia de lesión del 70,2%, siendo más frecuentes: esguinces (22,3%) y contusiones (21,1%), extremidad inferior (69,9%) y superior (24,7%), no precisaron pruebas médicas ni cirugía (68,6%), parque/plaza (60,9%) y calle (28%), salto de precisión (18,8%) y salto de longitud (11,1%). Por consiguiente se confirma que el parkour es susceptible de sufrir lesiones, en su mayoría esguinces, en la extremidad inferior y no resultan graves.

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Cortical and spinal excitabilities are differently balanced in power athletes(

Autor

Grosprêtre, S., Bouguetoch, A. & Martin, A.

2020

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European Journal of Sport Science

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

H-reflex; PARKOUR; freerunning; motor evoked potential; transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Resumen

It is recognised that power-sport practices have a particular effect on lower-limb neuromuscular parameters. Less is known about corticospinal network adaptation, however, or whether these adaptations are specific to the lower limb. In the present study, the corticospinal and spinal excitabilities of upper and lower limbs have been examined in a group of untrained participants (UT, n = 10) and compared to those of a group of well-trained athletes practicing parkour (PK, n = 10). This activity, consisting of overcoming obstacles offered by the urban environment, was chosen as a model of power activity. The motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulations and H-reflexes and maximal M-waves evoked by peripheral nerve stimulations were elicited in both upper- (flexor carpi radialis [FCR]) and lower-limb muscles (soleus [SOL] and gastrocnemius medialis [GM]). The results tended toward an overall greater corticospinal excitability in PK than in UT (as evidenced by greater MEP/Mmax ratio) and lower spinal excitability (lower Hmax/Mmax). H/MMAX ratio was lower for PK (0.32) than for UT (0.41) in SOL (p = 0.02), while MEP/MMAX was greater for PK than for UT in FCR (PK: 0.12; UT: 0.06; P = 0.04) and in GM (PK: 0.05, UT: 0.03, P = 0.02). In both limbs, the decrease of spinal excitability induced by parkour practice was counterbalanced by an increase in cortical excitability. Finally, the present study indicates that such long-term power practice leads to similar corticospinal plasticity in upper and lower limbs, explained by the similar solicitation of those muscles. 

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Designing Parkour-style training environments for athlete development: insights from experienced Parkour Traceurs

Autor

Strafford, B.W. et al.

2020

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Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

afordances, athletic development, Athletic Skills Model, donor sport, free running

Resumen

Contemporary models of motor learning implicate the value of Parkour-style training as an activity to enrich athletic performance in different sports. We explored Parkour Traceurs’ experiential knowledge on the range of physical, perceptual, psychological and social skills that they perceive to be developed during Parkour practice and performance. We also investigated their recommendations on how to design Parkour practice to facilitate the development of foundational performance behaviours. Experienced male Parkour Traceurs (n = 14) were interviewed using an open-ended, semi-structured approach, with a two-stage thematic analysis being conducted to identify themes. The analysis identified two dimensions: Skills Developed Through Parkour and Recommendations for Designing Parkour Training Environments. Parkour Traceurs outlined numerous physical (locomotor skills; endurance; strength; agility; balance), perceptual (multi-limb coordination; control precision; rate control; response orientation), psychological (problem-solving; stress relief; self-efficacy; risk management) and social (networking; initiative; social perceptiveness; receptiveness to feedback) capacities and skills that could be augmented through Parkour training. Parkour Traceurs explained how indoor Parkour environments should promote creative and exploratory movement behaviours that enable physical conditioning, whilst enhancing decision-making and action functionality. Responses suggest that these aims are often achieved by designing a modular practice landscape where Parkour Traceurs manipulate the spacing, orientation and angles of bars and wall set-ups to facilitate the development of different perceptual, cognitive and physical skills. In conclusion, this study provides insights on how affordances offered by a Parkour environment could be integrated into practice to enhance athlete self-regulation and transfer of functional behaviours to team sport performance.

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Sport Practice Enhances Athletes’ Observation Capacity: Comparing Scenic Change Detection in Open and Closed Sports

Autor

Grosprêtre, S. & Gabriel, D.

2020

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Perceptual and Motor Skills

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

change blindness, gymnastics, parkour, perception, rock climbing, skill

Resumen

Domain-specific knowledge guides our attention and thus influences our perception. Prior change-blindness research has shown that expert athletes can spot meaningful scene changes more quickly than novices, but less is known of whether this expertise is modulated differentially between open and closed sporting activities. We presented 81 individuals (20 gymnasts, 19 rock climbers, 22 parkour practitioners, and 20 control participants) with alternating sequences of images that corresponded to the habitual training landscapes of each group (gymnasiums, rock cliffs, and urban environments, respectively). We included contextual and non-contextual scenic changes to evaluate whether athletes were generally aware of their environments, or whether their observation strategies only targeted sport-related environmental elements. Among these three athletic endeavors, we found that gymnasts were faster at detecting changes in their environment, irrespective of whether or not these changes were contextual to the sports involved. Expert rock climbers presented a domain-specific expertise that was improved even further for contextual changes. Parkour practitioners presented the fastest reaction times in the urban environment and some of the best reaction times for all types of changes. These results confirm that an ability to read the environment is an integral aspect of practice in open-skilled sports, while skills of athletes in closed-skilled sports are more closely related to motor skill repetitions in constant environments. Thus, open skill training may benefit athletes’ guidance of attention. Our finding that parkour practitioners appeared to have developed the widest perceptual abilities was probably linked to these athletes’ extremely wide range of practice environments and with the constant demands of this sport to find solutions in random natural environments that that are not purposely designed for the sport.

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Are Children Attracted to Play Elements with an Open Function?

Autor

Lynn van der Schaaf, A., Caljouw, S.R. & Withagen, R.

2020

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Ecological Psychology

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

The present study aimed to determine the degree to which play elements have an “open function”, and whether children are attracted to them. The architect van Eyck hypothesized that play elements with an open function attract playing children because such elements do not suggest a certain type of behavior and are, thus, likely to stimulate the children’s creativity. Children of three different age groups (5-6, 7-8, and 11-12years of age) played freely in a Parkour

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