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HUMANIDADES Y CIENCIAS SOCIALES

sociología - antropología - filosofía - historia - derecho - etc.

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Young parkour traceurs in Mexico City: A new way to meaning and identity in urban spaces

Autor

Islas, I., Varela, S.

2022

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Semiotica

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

parkour; semiotics of culture; semiotics of sports; sociosemiotics;
urban cultural practices; virtual spaces

Resumen

The practice of parkour in urban spaces by young people, especially those who call themselves traceurs ("plotters"), illustrates how identities are formed in an ephemeral way by reinterpreting spaces in the city-briefly and without leaving a trace. However, in a sort of paradox, these interventions are registered in the socio-digital spectrum, tokenistically anchoring and incorporating them into conversations and social interactions. This work aims to explain the practice of the sport called parkour as a socio-semiotic phenomenon. We have used some zones of Mexico City as a specific case for our approach. The foregoing leads to the conclusion that the meaning of parkour goes beyond its recreational role and places it as a relevant piece of identity for excluded urban social groups-even though these practices have been appropriated by marketing strategies. Our approach will use a cultural semiotics perspective, as well as direct observations and interviews as research techniques.

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The institutionalisation of Parkour in Denmark. A national case of how institutional isomorphism works and affect lifestyle sport

Autor

Hojbjerre Larsen, S.

2022

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International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Lifestyle sports, action sports, parkour, institutionalisation, sportisation, sport-for-all

Resumen

Many lifestyle sports are undergoing a process of institutionalisation and sportisation. A growing body of research in the institutionalisation of lifestyle sport is developing. This is especially the case for parkour where researchers have begun analysing how parkour has been developed in different national contexts. By drawing on institutional theory and various empirical data collected through ethnographical field studies, this article offers a qualitative analysis about how the national, socio-cultural context and the sport governance system have coloured the institutionalisation of parkour in Denmark. The institutionalisation has been driven by the practitioners’ interest in getting access to sport facilities and therefore a need to accommodate the sport governance system. But also, at the same time, by the existing associations who are facing challenges to attract young people and therefore integrating parkour into their schedules. Even though the institutionalisation creates tensions, it also illuminates how parkour has been integrated into the existing gymnastic organisations without being turned into an achievement sport, but as a sport-for-all.

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Renovación de los Juegos Olímpicos y apropiación cultural del parkour. Apoyos y resistencias

Autor

Santandreu, F.

2022

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Cuadernos Del Claeh-centro Latinoamericano De Economia Humana

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Juegos Olímpicos, actividad de tiempo
libre, deporte, cultura.

Resumen

El parkour surgió en suburbios franceses como desarrollo
de un grupo de personas y se catapultó a un público masivo a través de plataformas virtuales de video a partir de
2006, lo que generó innumerables apropiaciones locales.
La ética de la comunidad de parkour abarca diversidad de
valores compartidos (o no) por segmentos de esa población, entre ellos: no competición, utilitarismo de los movimientos y creatividad. Llamaremos cultura del parkour a
esta comunidad y, a su vez, al conjunto de conocimientos,
ética y arte compartido por ellos, conscientes de que contiene divergencias y fronteras difusas. En su Agenda 2020,
el Comité Olímpico Internacional proyectó la renovación
de los Juegos Olímpicos, con la incorporación de nuevos
deportes extremos para mejorar su alcance en el público
joven. En 2017, la Federación Internacional de Gimnasia
anunció una nueva modalidad competitiva para ser incorporada a los Juegos Olímpicos basada en el parkour, el FIG
Parkour. Este desarrollo fue inmediatamente considerado
apropiación indebida por grupos, organizaciones y federaciones de parkour. Relacionamos esta denuncia con la
idea de apropiación cultural y sintetizamos algunos apoyos y resistencias al desarrollo de FIG Parkour en las culturas del parkour y la gimnasia deportiva.

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What Makes Parkour Unique? A Narrative Review Across Miscellaneous Academic Fields

Autor

Pagnon, D. et al.

2022

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Sports medicine

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

Parkour is a growing sport that mostly involves jumping, vaulting over obstacles, and climbing in a non-dedicated setting. The authors gathered all known relevant literature across miscellaneous academic fields in order to define parkour with regard to other sports disciplines. Parkour is a lifestyle sport, and as such provides an alternative to mainstream sports, away from strict rules, standardized settings, and necessary competitions. Traceurs (parkour adepts) consider the city as a playground and as an outlet for their creativity, but they also have a strong taste for hard and individualized challenges. They usually train on non-specific structures, at ground level. Although their social background is not clear, they are mostly young and male. Traceurs are stronger than recreational athletes, especially in eccentric exercises. However, their endurance skills may be below average. One of the core specificities of parkour is its precision constraint at landing, which turns a standing long jump into a precision jump, regulated in flight so as to prepare for landing. The running precision jump follows the same landing pattern, and its flight phase contrasts with long jump techniques. Injuries, which are not more frequent than in other sports, often occur at landing and to lower limb extremities. This risk is mitigated by targeting the landing area with the forefoot instead of letting the heel hit the ground like in gymnastics, or with rolling in order to dissipate the impact. Overall, parkour focuses on adaptability to new environments, which leads to specific techniques that have not yet been extensively addressed by the literature.

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Explorando subculturas de rua através das lentes da arte e do desporto: uma análise histórica de danca, bmx, skateboarding e parkour

Autor

Pires, I., Marques, L., Silva, L., Silva, M.

2022

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E-Revista de Estudos Interculturais

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Portugués

Palabras clave

Arts; BMX; Cultural Practices; Parkour; Skateboarding; Sports; Street Dance; Street Subcultures; Urban Space

Resumen

Scientific research is preponderant in the development and dissemination of knowledge, and, in this sense, the contemporary city is established as an object of study for understanding the behaviors and influences of cultural and artistic practices emerging in its territory. In our daily lives, we identify cultural and artistic street practices that we know little or nothing about. The fieldwork, carried out as a part of the StreetArtCEI project, has increased our interest in other urban cultural practices that we come across with, alongside graffiti and street art. In this context, we intend to explore street dance, skateboarding, BMX, and parkour, from a holistic perspective. These are inspiring activities practiced individually or in groups, mostly by younger generations, that connect the arts and the sports worlds more than ever.

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Skate, parkour y barras en la Ciudad de México

Autor

Varela, S. et al

2021

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Sociología del Deporte

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Parkour, Skateboarding, Barras, Masculinidad, Espacio Público

Resumen

En este artículo se expone un resumen de resultados referentes a una investigación realizada en la Ciudad de México, en la que se estudian tres actividades físicas, surgidas en países occidentales centrales durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, pero ampliamente practicadas en dicha ciudad: skateboarding, parkour y barras o street workout. La atención del texto se centra en el carácter urbano y masculinizado de estas disciplinas, así como en sus dimensiones lúdicas, estilísticas y estéticas, mismas que son reivindicadas por sus practicantes. Para lo anterior, mostramos algunos datos obtenidos mediante un cuestionario aplicado en campo y por medio de entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a practicantes varones, así como algunas observaciones obtenidas de plataformas digitales. Además, se ofrece un esfuerzo por conceptualizar tales actividades dentro de una red de categorías propias de la sociología del deporte, esto en el intento de subrayar sus rasgos como deportes callejeros.

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What makes parkour unique? A narrative review across miscellaneous academic fields.

Autor

Pagnon, D. et al.

2021

  |

Sportrxvi

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

free-running, biomechanics, physiology, landing, precision, lifestyle sport

Resumen

Parkour is a growing sport that mostly involves jumping, vaulting over obstacles, and climbing in a non dedicated setting. The authors gathered all known relevant literature across miscellaneaous academic fields in order to define parkour with regards to other sports disciplines. Parkour is a lifestyle sport, and as such provides an alternative to mainstream ones, away from strict rules, standardized settings, and necessary competitions. Traceurs (parkour adepts) consider the city as a playground and as an outlet for their creativity, but they also have a strong taste for hard and individualized challenges. They usually train on non specific structures, at ground level. Although their social background is not clear, they are mostly young and male.

URL

Parkour: playing the modern, accelerated city

Autor

Hojbjerre Larsen, S.

2021

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Journal of the Philosophy of Sport

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

parkour, play, resonance, alienation, sport critique, sportification

Resumen

In this article, I argue that parkour can be understood as a way to recapture moments of non-alienated human experience in urban space. I draw on Hartmut Rosa’s theory of temporally caused alienation and Edward Casey´s phenomenological study of place and space. Based on empirical data I describe how the practitioners aren’t indifferent to urban space, but they carry a unique material curiousness and a concrete physical presence wherever they go, thereby enabling an experience of resonance. Even though parkour, as well as other informal sports, is subjected to societal patterns of sportification, acceleration and alienation, it is a good example proving that human beings can transform, for a moment, the most alienated environment, into a place of play.

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Body-Space-Relation in Parkour : Street Practices and Visual Representations

Autor

Braune, I.

2021

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Media and Mapping Practices in the Middle East and North Africa

Tipo de publicación

Capítulo de libro

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Morocco, parkour, body, street

Resumen

Parkour today is a global subcultural scene that combines street with media practices. Parkour consists of a local moment, fundamentally concerned with the materiality of the street, and simultaneously of a global digital discourse, which involves millions of parkour actors. While the spatial knowledge requires a very close knowledge and tactile contact of the surface’s nature of space, the media representations seem to ref lect an opposite image, namely the detachedness of space. In this chapter, I will address the question of space-making and spatial practices in Morocco and the relation to parkour’s visual representations.

URL

Parkour: playing the modern, accelerated city

Autor

Højbjerre, S.

2020

  |

Journal of the Philosophy of Sport

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

alienation, parkour play, resonance, sport critique, sportification

Resumen

In this article, I argue that parkour can be understood as a way to recapture moments of non-alienated human experience in urban space. I draw on Hartmut Rosa’s theory of temporally caused alienation and Edward Casey´s phenomenological study of place and space. Based on empirical data I describe how the practitioners aren’t indifferent to urban space, but they carry a unique material curiousness and a concrete physical presence wherever they go, thereby enabling an experience of resonance. Even though parkour, as well as other informal sports, is subjected to societal patterns of sportification, acceleration and alienation, it is a good example proving that human beings can transform, for a moment, the most alienated environment, into a place of play.

URL

Clothing the practice: Community building, sportification and commodification in CrossFit and parkour

Autor

De Benedittis, M & Carmoletto, R. F.

2022

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International Journal of Fashion Studies

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Apparel; boundary-making; commodification; community-building; informational capital; sportification

Resumen

Relying on empirical data from two research projects on CrossFit and parkour, and adopting mixed methods (enactive ethnography, participant observation, online survey and social media analysis), this article aims at evidencing the role of apparel and gear in some processes engendering a transformation of the two practices. We investigate the making of boundaries – internal and external to the practices – that furnish ways of belonging to practitioners, focusing on how the processes of sportification and commodification are involved in these different ways of belongingness. We link these general processes to their connections with clothing, accessories and their material and symbolic use, showing how informational capital is at stake in this

URL

Regimes of Visibility in the Global Parkour

Autor

Braune, I.

2022

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Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Gender; media; Morocco; parkour; regimes of visibility; sports

Resumen

Parkour is often defined through its strikingly visual dimension with breathtaking images of leaps covering amazing distances, recordings of seemingly impossible body movements and flying bodies apparently no longer constrained by gravity. However, the basic idea behind parkour is to find the most efficient or direct path as one crosses from one point to another while overcoming all obstacles using only one's bodily capacities. No additional tools are used or are necessary. The seemingly weightless traceurs and traceuses (parkour practitioners) run, jump and climb through public and digital space. At the same time, they produce visual footage of their best movements. As in other sporting cultures, such as skateboarding, surfing or climbing, the productions of visual material and the visual representation of the sports practices are interrelated. This hints at an entangled relationship between parkour and media in its various forms and aspects. In the following article, parkour will be described as a mediatized global cultural practice with a focus on established regimes of visibility. The analysis will be conducted from a local Moroccan and gendered perspective and using an ethnographic approach.

URL

Contested bodies in a regenerating city: post-migrant men's contingent citizenship, parkour and diaspora spaces

Autor

De Martini Ugolotti, N.

2022

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Leisure Studies

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Parkour, right to the city, contingent citizenship, diaspora space

Resumen

The following paper contributes to interdisciplinary debates at the intersection of informal sport/leisure, migration and urban studies. It does so by drawing on an ethnographic research with young men of migrant origins in Turin, Italy, and by addressing the relevance of parkour in the participants’ experiences and negotiations of ‘what it means to (not) belong’ in urban spaces. The focus on parkour provides a unique entry point to address the politics of belonging that unfold in urban spaces as contested sites where competing images of the city, the nation and of who belongs to them converge, clash and overlap. This is particularly relevant, though not limited to the Italian context, where political narratives and realities still legally and socially define the children of migration as alien bodies in the nation, while Turin’s urban leaderships portray youth cultures and multicultural diversity as assets for the city’s symbolic, cultural and financial regeneration. As the intersection of such discourses shapes the manifold ways through which post-migrant urban subjects become essentialised, valorised and pathologised in Turin, the paper’s findings foreground the relevance of informal sports as entry points to (re)consider discussions on citizenship, conviviality and rights (to the city) in contemporary urban contexts.

URL

Sovereign Surfing in the Society of Control: The Parkour Chase in Casino Royale as a Staging of Social Change

Autor

Jonasson, K., Eriksson, J.

2022

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Social Sciences

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

control; discipline; Gilles Deleuze; James Bond; Michel Foucault; movement; parkour; social change; sovereignty; surfing

Resumen

In “Postscript on Societies of Control”, French philosopher Gilles Deleuze proclaimed that “Everywhere surfing has replaced the older sports”. By this, he alluded to Foucault’s thoughts on older societal regimes and power diagrams of sovereignty and discipline, and that now such models have been supplemented with governance through control and allegations of increased freedom. This article has as its point of departure the potential of sports to reflect social change. Contemporaneously to the coining of Deleuze’s surfing sentence, a new sport emerges: parkour, in which practitioners “surf” the urban realm. This practice gained attention globally when it was featured in the 2006 James Bond film Casino Royale. The analysis in this article revolves around the different ways of moving in and through the environment in the renowned parkour chase in the beginning of the movie. How do different kinds of displacement in the parkour chase of Casino Royale relate to the transition between the societies described by Deleuze, and what new adaptations emerge and what old logics and models return? It is concluded that the older forms of power prevail and that the ideal of the society of control cannot be realised.

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The Poor “Wealth” of Brazilian Football: How Poverty May Shape Skill and Expertise of Players

Autor

Uehara, L. et al.

2021

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Front Sports Act Living

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

ecological dynamics, skill acquisition, football, poverty, affordances landscapes

Resumen

Worldwide, 1.3 billion people live in Poverty, a socio-economic status that has been identified as a key determinant of a lack of sports participation. Still, numerous athletes around the world have grown up in underprivileged socio-economic conditions. This is the case in Brazil, a country with around 13.5 million impoverished citizens, yet, over decades, many of its best professional footballers have emerged from its favelas. In this article, we explore the role of the socio-cultural-economic constraints in shaping the development of skill and expertise of Brazilian professional football players. The methodological and epistemological assumptions of the “Contextualized Skill Acquisition Research” (CSAR) approach are used as an underpinning framework for organizing and analyzing data. Results suggested that, at the exosystemic level of Brazilian society, Poverty emerges as an influential constraint that can potentially enrich football development experiences of Brazilian players. Poverty, however, is not the direct causation of outstanding football skill development. Rather, from the perspective of ecological dynamics, Poverty creates specific contexts that can lead to the emergence of physical as well as socio-cultural environment constraints (e.g., Pelada, Malandragem) that can shape affordances (opportunities) for skill acquisition. These ideas suggest the need to ensure that environmental constraints can support people to amuse themselves cheaply, gain access to employment opportunities and maintain health and well-being through (unstructured and more structured) sport and physical activities in dense urban environments such as favelas, inner city areas, and banlieues. For this purpose, design of open play areas and even parkour installations can provide affordances landscapes for physical activity and sports participation in urban settings.

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Parkour, transpondo o obstáculo da competição

Autor

Pereira, D.W. & Batista, R.

2021

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Conexoes

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Portugués

Palabras clave

Parkour, Competição, Esporte

Resumen

O parkour é uma nova versão esportiva, criado nos subúrbios de França que se opõe ao agonismo próprio da modernidade e parece confrontar as certezas que o positivismo engendra. Este trabalho tem por objetivo conhecer os praticantes de parkour e entender como concebem o conceito de competição que começa a ser disseminado nele. Método: Uma pesquisa exploratória com oitenta e quatro sujeitos foi aplicada em praticantes de todo o Brasil. Resultados: Os resultados permitem dizer que os jovens são aqueles que mais procuram o parkour e que os grupos são heterogêneos, ainda se percebe que as mulheres precisam conquistar seu espaço, pois não são protagonistas na modalidade. Conclusão: Verificou-se que há interesses da Federação Internacional de Ginástica em agrupar o parkour como uma de suas disciplinas e que os praticantes brasileiros não têm um consenso sobre se aceitam a competição ou não.

URL

Young Gazan Refugees, Sport and Social Media: Understanding Migration as a Process of Becoming

Autor

Thorpe, H. & Wheaton, B.

2021

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International Migration Review

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

migration, Gaza, young refugees, sport, social media

Resumen

Located at the intersection of two key literatures—refugee and sport migration studies—this article offers original insights into the lived and embodied experiences of young men migrating from Gaza to Europe. Drawing upon interviews with young Gazan men throughout the migration process and upon digital ethnography conducted from 2013 to 2018, it explains how these men used their physical prowess in the informal sport of parkour, combined with digital entrepreneurialism, to navigate alternative routes of migration to Europe. In prioritizing the young men’s narratives and offering rich empirical insight into the creative actions and strategic decisions made by youth at various stages throughout migration journeys, we challenge dominant portrayals of young refugees as “victims.” Migration is, thus, revealed as an ongoing and multi-dimensional process of becoming that operates within and across physical and digital spaces and over time. The first to evidence the struggles, creativity, and agency of Gazan youth in their efforts to escape lives of conflict and poverty, the article also prompts conceptual and methodological questions for youth and sport migration research. In particular, it highlights the need to explore the possibilities of digital methodologies for understanding the experiences of those in “hard to reach” places and those “on the move.”

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Masters of Chancery: The Gift of Public Space

Autor

Kingwell, M.

2021

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Public Space Reader

Tipo de publicación

Capítulo de libro

Idioma

Inglés

Palabras clave

Resumen

Public space is the age’s master signifier. A loose and elastic notion that is variously deployed to defend architecture, to decry civic squares, to promote graffiti artists, skateboarders, jay-walkers, parkour aficionados, pie-in-the-face guerrillas, underground capture the flag enthusiasts, flashmob surveillance-busters, and other grid-resistant everyday anarchists. It is the unit of choice when it comes to understanding pollution, predicting political futures, thinking about citizenship, lauding creativity, and worrying about food, water, or the environment. Access to such goods is supposed to be of common interest. Unfortunately, when unmanaged, even abundant public goods are frequently subject to what the economist Garrett Hardin called “the tragedy of the commons.” In the classical ideal theory, positional public goods and public positional goods should be contradictions in terms: anything zero-sum is not public, and anything public is not subject to relative gain. In reality, the various hybrids of publicness and exclusive competition are unfortunately common.

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Vivir el Parkour: cartografías de imágenes y experiencias de la desigualdad

Autor

Castro, J.O.

2020

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Question

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Parkour ; Juventudes ; Ciudades ; Género ; Desigualdad

Resumen

Partiendo de considerar a las ciudades como espacios en construcción constante en la que se expresan no solo múltiples prácticas y modos de vida, sino también las luchas por el poder de enunciación, las diversidades y desigualdades materiales y simbólicas. Este trabajo pretende dar cuenta sobre la manera en que las y los jóvenes de la ciudad de Perico, provincia de Jujuy, adscriptos y adscriptas al Parkour, construyen su experiencia en la ciudad, viviendo, reproduciendo, trasgrediendo y negociando condiciones de desigualdad, reconociendo además en estos procesos las inequidades y relaciones de poder que se dan entre los géneros. El Parkour como práctica corporal basada en el trazado por diversos espacios de las ciudades a través de múltiples movimientos que deben ser fundamentalmente fluidos, emergió con intensidad en los últimos años y exige ser explorado para vislumbrar los diversos procesos comunicacionales contemporáneos en esta localidad. En esta tarea, la presente investigación se presenta como una descripción e interpretación desde una perspectiva sociocultural de las ciudades y las juventudes, sustentada en un trabajo etnográfico que nos posibilitó comprender los procesos sociales desde la perspectiva de las y los jóvenes protagonistas. Las entrevistas, los diálogos, la observación participante y no participante en el campo les dan cuerpo y sustento a las reflexiones aquí propuestas.

URL

Saltando, corriendo y desplazándoseLa experiencia corporal del espacio público desde la práctica de parkour en Talca, Chile

Autor

Sepúlveda, M.A.

2020

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URBS: Revista de estudios urbanos y ciencias sociales

Tipo de publicación

Artículo de revista

Idioma

Español

Palabras clave

Cuerpo; espacio público; heterotopía; parkour

Resumen

En la sociedad contemporánea se han promovido ciertas formas de moverse corporalmente en los espacios públicos, limitando las formas de experimentarlos. Sin embargo, han surgido distintas prácticas que reclaman un lugar en la ciudad. Entre éstas se destaca el parkour, como una práctica que utiliza el cuerpo para desplazarse en la ciudad y sus espacios públicos. En este sentido, esta investigación, a través de una perspectiva etnográfica, centró su interés en comprender la manera en que los practicantes de parkour experimentan corporalmente la ciudad, a través de los usos que otorgan a los espacios públicos y los movimientos corporales que realizan en éstos. Como resultados principales, se encontró que: (1) los practicantes de parkour realizan una imitación de movimientos animales para desplazarse en los espacios públicos; y que (2) existe un proceso de imaginación, mediante el cual los practicantes de parkour convierten el espacio en una «heterotopía» para experimentarlo corporalmente

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